DNOX with Ethanol Engines

2004-04-07
Investigating the Potential to Obtain Low Emissions from a Diesel Engine Running on Ethanol and Equipped with EGR, Catalyst and DPF

SAE Reference No: 2004-01-1884
Dan Haupt, Kent Nord and Bror Tingvall Luleå University of Technology
Peter Ahlvik Ecotraffic ERD3
Karl-Erik Egebäck Autoemission K-E E Consultant
Sören Andersson and Micael Blomquist STT EMTEC

Experiments were performed to investigate the potential to achieve low emissions from a diesel engine fueled by ethanol and equipped with a commercially available exhaust after-treatment device, DNOx® from STT Emtec. The DNOx® system includes exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) catalysts and a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (DPF). Two Euro III classified 9-liter turbocharged, after-cooled diesel engines from Scania were used for the task. One engine was fueled by ethanol and the other by Swedish diesel fuel, EC1. Engine operating conditions of a 22-mode test cycle, including the 13 modes of the European Stationary Cycle (ESC cycle), were used for the tests.

The emissions of NOX and HC were small for the ethanol-fueled engine, 3.48 and 0.53 g/kWh, respectively, while the emission of CO was higher, 2.07 g/kWh. Estimations of emitted particle mass were calculated by using the software supplied in the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The estimations showed that the ethanol engine emitted only ~1/10 of the particle mass emitted by the diesel-fueled engine.

A powerful reduction of the regulated emissions was obtained when equipping the ethanol engine with EGR, catalyst and DPF. The emissions of HC, CO and NOX decreased down to 0.15, 0.04 and 2.54 g/kWh, respectively, while the estimated particle mass was reduced by 67%. Actually, by using the aftertreatment system, the engine became a Euro IV engine regarding the emissions of HC, CO and NOx. The system worked even better with the diesel-fueled engine. The NOx emission was reduced by approximately 33% and the estimated particle mass by more than 99%.

Calculations showed that the EGR ratio was higher for the diesel engine than for the ethanol engine. Consequently, by applying a higher EGR ratio for the ethanol engine an additional reduction of the NOX emissions should be obtained.

The results indicate that very low NOX and particle emissions could be obtained for an ethanol-fueled diesel engine by using the right after treatment equipment. Future studies should investigate the possibility to increase the EGR ratio further. The investigations also underline the need for development of a special particulate filter for ethanol engines.

SAE-paper in PDF-format

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